Differences between women and men exist in health and disease, and a person’s sex and gender matters in the prevalence and severity of a broad range of diseases and conditions. Biological sex plays a role in health at every stage of life and at every level — from the single cell to the entire body.

That’s why it’s critical to include women and female animals, tissues, and cells in medical research.

SWHR’s science programs bring together expert researchers, clinicians, patients, and other health care leaders to identify research gaps and address unmet needs in diseases and conditions that disproportionately or differently affect women.

Differences exist


of women with
sleep apnea
go undiagnosed

because they may not report the same “textbook” symptoms as men.


of those with
Alzheimer’s disease
are women

and some research suggests women are at greater risk for AD than men.


of people with
are women

and they experience rapid bone loss at menopause due to hormonal changes.

“Advancing science through activities of leading researchers, catalyzing new research initiatives and focusing the community on the most urgent and tractable health problems for women provide the critical foundation for effective advocacy.”

— Susan Redline, MD, MPH, Sleep Network Chair